Demonstrative-Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns / Pronomes Demonstrativos

The demonstrative pronouns can be used for both pointing and identifying a noun or something, and also to refer to the distance among “the thing”, the speaker and the listener. For example, in English, the demonstrative pronoun “this” and “these” refer to things that are close to the speaker while the pronouns“that” and “those” refer to things that are further away from the speaker, in space or time.

In Portuguese the demonstrative pronouns must agree in gender and number with the noun the pronoun is related to.

Demonstrative Pronouns “this” and “these”  

Used when something is close to the speaker. “This” means este /esta and “these” means estes / estas. Study the chart below:

 

This

Masculine Singular Feminine Singular
 Este Esta

These

Masculine Plural Feminine Plural
 Estes Estas

Examples:

  • Este prato (this plate) / Estes pratos (these plates) – (observe that “este” is singular / masculine

and “estes” is plural / masculine)

  • Esta mesa (this table) / Estas mesas (these tables) – (observe that “esta” is singular / feminine and “estas” is plural / feminine)

 

Demonstrative Pronouns “that” and “those”

These demonstrative pronouns are used when something is far from the speaker but close to the listener. “That” means esse / essa and “those” means esses / essas. the chart below.

 

 

 

 

That

Masculine Singular Feminine Singular
 

Esse

 

Essa

 

 

Those

Masculine Plural Feminine Plural
 

Esses

 

Essas

Examples:

  • Esse livro (that book ) / Esses livros (those books) – (observe that “esse” is singular / masculine and “esses” is plural / masculine)
  • Essa casa (that house) / Essas casas (those houses) – (observe that “essa” is singular / feminine and “essas” is plural / feminine)

 

Demonstrative Pronouns “that” and “those” – An important observation

In Portuguese you’ll find demonstrative pronouns to refer to things that are further away in space or time from both speaker and listener. Study the translation of them in the chart below:

 

 

 

 

That

Masculine Singular Feminine Singular
 

Aquele

 

Aquela

 

 

Those

Masculine Plural Feminine Plural
 

Aqueles

 

Aquelas

Examples:

  • Aquele homem (that man) / Aqueles homens (those men) – (observe that “aquele” is singular / masculine and “aqueles” is plural / masculine)
  • Aquela chave (that key) / Aquelas chaves (those keys) – (observe that “aquela” is singular / feminine and “aquelas” is plural / feminine)

 

Notes

You can use Isto (this thing, this), Isso (that thing, that) and Aquilo (that thing) – to express your opinion or ideas. You can also use them to point something, without saying the name of the thing. These demonstrative pronouns do not identify objects (they don’t accompany a noun) and they are used just in the singular form.

 

 

This / This thing

 

 

Isto   

 

 

That / That thing

 

 

Isso   

 

 

That thing

 

Aquilo   

Examples:

  • O que é isso? What is that?
  • O que é aquilo? What is that thing over there?
  • Isto não é bom. This is not good.